Arsenic compounds toxicity

Rafati-Rahimzadeh, M.R. and Rafati-Rahimzadeh, M. and Moghadamnia, A.A. (2013) Arsenic compounds toxicity. Journal of Babol University of Medical Sciences, 15 (2). pp. 51-68.

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Arsenic compounds toxicity have been reported of many parts of the world. Those are one of global clinical problems that affect all body organs and many cases of death every year. Arsenic compounds exist in environment and human body as form of inorganic and organic arsenic. Inorganic arsenic includes arsenite (As III) and arsenate (As V). The inorganic arsenics can be methylated to form monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in vivo. Aasenic, especially inorganic arsenic is well absorbed (80-90) from the gastrointestinal tract, distributed in the body, often metabolized by methylation, and then primarily excreted into urine. Methylation of inorganic arsenic compounds is considered as a detoxification process. Arsenic compounds cause to DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and decreased antioxidant defense levels. The wide human exposure to arsenic compound especial inorganic arsenic in different sources throughout the world causes great concern for human health. Long term exposure to arsenic can lead to cancer of skin and internal organs eg., the liver, lung, kidney and bladder, also high mortality rate. The noncancerous effects of ingesting arsenic include clinical manifestation in gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, pulmonary, immunological, neurological systems, endocrine glands (e.g. diabetes) and skin. There are some laboratories tests available to diagnose poisoning can measure arsenic in blood, urine, hair, and fingernails. The urine test is the most reliable for detecting arsenic exposure. Arsenic toxicity can be life threating and necessitates supportive therapy (administration crystalloid fluids, inotropic drugs and treatment of cardiac dysrhythemias), decontamination (GI tract irrigation & use activated charcoal in some patients), chelating agents that should be initiated as soon as in arsenic toxicity. These chelating agents include: BAL (British anti lewisite, dimercaprol), 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA. Succimer), dimercaptopropane sulfoxid acid (DMPS), and also, long term follow-up of these patients. This review article offer to ascertain: a) find out contamination areas that exposure to arsenic to the people by water, food, soil and air; b) common diseases of arsenic poisoning in human; c) education level, awareness and treatment of contaminated people.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: cited By 4
Uncontrolled Keywords: arsenic acid; arsenic derivative; arsenic trioxide; cacodylic acid; chelating agent; dimercaprol; dimercaptopropane sulfoxid acid; methanearsonic acid; succimer; unclassified drug, antioxidant activity; arsenic poisoning; article; DNA damage; drug absorption; drug distribution; drug metabolism; follow up; laboratory test; lipid peroxidation; long term exposure; methylation; urinalysis
Subjects: Medicine
Divisions: Faculty of Para medicine > Department of Management Radiology and Medical Physics
Depositing User: editor . 2
Date Deposited: 01 Mar 2017 14:27
Last Modified: 11 Mar 2017 16:56

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