The effects of hydro-ethanolic extract of Capparis spinosa (C. spinosa) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and cognitive impairment: Evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies

Baradaran Rahimi, V. and Rajabian, A. and Rajabi, H. and Mohammadi Vosough, E. and Mirkarimi, H.R. and Hasanpour, M. and Iranshahi, M. and Rakhshandeh, H. and Askari, V.R. (2020) The effects of hydro-ethanolic extract of Capparis spinosa (C. spinosa) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and cognitive impairment: Evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 256.


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Ethnopharmacological relevance: Capparis spinose (C. spinosa) belonging to Capparaeae, originates from dry areas in the west or central Asia and Mediterranean basin. For thousands of years, C. spinosa has been reported to be used as a therapeutic traditional medicine to relieve various ailments including rheumatism, pain and inflammatory diseases. Aim of the study: There are several studies mentioning that systemic inflammation results in learning and memory impairments through the activation of microglia. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of C. spinosa on both in vivo and in vitro models of neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment using lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Materials and methods: In vivo: 40 male rats were used in the present study. Cognitive impairment was induced using LPS (1 mg/kg/d; i.p.) for 4 weeks. Treatment with C. spinosa (100 and 300 mg/kg/d; p.o.) was performed 1 h before LPS administration. At the end of the experiment, rats were undergone for behavioral and biochemical analysis. In vitro: Primary microglia isolated from mouse was used in the present study. The cells were pretreated with C. spinosa extract (10�300 μg/ml) and then stimulated with LPS (1 μg/ml). The expression levels of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were elucidated using Real-Time PCR and ELISA methods. Results: The escape latency in the Morris water maze test in the LPS group was significantly greater than the control group (p < 0.001), while, in extract-treated groups, it was less than the LPS group (p < 0.001). Additionally, we found that the levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS/Arg-1 ratio was also significantly lower in extract-treated groups than the LPS group (p < 0.001). The results revealed that C. spinosa extract significantly reduced the levels of TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, NO and PGE2, and the ratios of iNOS/Arg-1 and NO/urea, following the LPS-induced inflammation in microglia (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our finding provides evidence that C. spinosa has a neuroprotective effect, and might be considered as an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases that are accompanied by microglial activation, such as AD. © 2020

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: cited By 0
Uncontrolled Keywords: antiinflammatory agent; arginase 1; Capparis spinosa extract; central nervous system agents; cyclooxygenase 2; inducible nitric oxide synthase; interleukin 1beta; interleukin 6; lipopolysaccharide; nitric oxide; plant extract; prostaglandin E2; tumor necrosis factor; unclassified drug; urea, adult; animal cell; animal experiment; animal model; animal tissue; antiinflammatory activity; Article; behavior assessment; biochemical analysis; Capparis spinosa; cell isolation; cell proliferation; controlled study; enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; escape latency; experimental cognitive defect; in vitro study; in vivo study; lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation; male; microglia; Morris water maze test; nonhuman; rat; real time polymerase chain reaction
Subjects: Medicine
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine > Basic Sciences > Department of Pharmacology
Depositing User: ART . editor
Date Deposited: 28 Jun 2020 09:50
Last Modified: 28 Jun 2020 09:50

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