Influenza vaccine: Where are we and where do we go?

Keshavarz, M. and Mirzaei, H. and Salemi, M. and Momeni, F. and Mousavi, M.J. and Sadeghalvad, M. and Arjeini, Y. and Solaymani-Mohammadi, F. and Sadri Nahand, J. and Namdari, H. and Mokhtari-Azad, T. and Rezaei, F. (2019) Influenza vaccine: Where are we and where do we go? Reviews in Medical Virology, 29 (1).

[img] Text

Download (809kB)
Official URL:


The alarming rise of morbidity and mortality caused by influenza pandemics and epidemics has drawn attention worldwide since the last few decades. This life-threatening problem necessitates the development of a safe and effective vaccine to protect against incoming pandemics. The currently available flu vaccines rely on inactivated viral particles, M2e-based vaccine, live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) and virus like particle (VLP). While inactivated vaccines can only induce systemic humoral responses, LAIV and VLP vaccines stimulate both humoral and cellular immune responses. Yet, these vaccines have limited protection against newly emerging viral strains. These strains, however, can be targeted by universal vaccines consisting of conserved viral proteins such as M2e and capable of inducing cross-reactive immune response. The lack of viral genome in VLP and M2e-based vaccines addresses safety concern associated with existing attenuated vaccines. With the emergence of new recombinant viral strains each year, additional effort towards developing improved universal vaccine is warranted. Besides various types of vaccines, microRNA and exosome-based vaccines have been emerged as new types of influenza vaccines which are associated with new and effective properties. Hence, development of a new generation of vaccines could contribute to better treatment of influenza. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: cited By 14
Uncontrolled Keywords: DNA vaccine; epitope; influenza vaccine; m2e vaccine; messenger RNA; microRNA; recombinant vaccine; RNA vaccine; subunit vaccine; unclassified drug; inactivated vaccine; influenza vaccine; live vaccine; subunit vaccine, cellular immunity; cytotoxic T lymphocyte; exosome; human; humoral immunity; influenza; influenza vaccination; nonhuman; Review; virus genome; virus like agent; virus strain; animal; cross protection; disease transmission; heterologous immunity; immunology; influenza; isolation and purification; medical research; pharmaceutics; prevention and control; trends, Animals; Biomedical Research; Cross Protection; Disease Transmission, Infectious; Humans; Immunity, Heterologous; Influenza Vaccines; Influenza, Human; Technology, Pharmaceutical; Vaccines, Attenuated; Vaccines, Inactivated; Vaccines, Subunit
Subjects: Immunology and Microbiology
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine > Basic Sciences > Department of Microbiology & Immunology
Depositing User: ART . editor
Date Deposited: 28 Dec 2019 14:46
Last Modified: 28 Dec 2019 14:46

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item