The regulatory role of Toll-like receptors after ischemic stroke: neurosteroids as TLR modulators with the focus on TLR2/4

Tajalli-Nezhad, S. and Karimian, M. and Beyer, C. and Atlasi, M.A. and Azami Tameh, A. (2019) The regulatory role of Toll-like receptors after ischemic stroke: neurosteroids as TLR modulators with the focus on TLR2/4. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 76 (3). pp. 523-537.

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Ischemic stroke is the most common cerebrovascular disease and considered as a worldwide leading cause of death. After cerebral ischemia, different pathophysiological processes including neuroinflammation, invasion and aggregation of inflammatory cells and up-regulation of cytokines occur simultaneously. In this respect, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the first identified important mediators for the activation of the innate immune system and are widely expressed in glial cells and neurons following brain trauma. TLRs are also able to interact with endogenous and exogenous molecules released during ischemia and can increase tissue damage. Particularly, TLR2 and TLR4 activate different downstream inflammatory signaling pathways. In addition, TLR signaling can alternatively play a role for endogenous neuroprotection. In this review, the gene and protein structures, common genetic polymorphisms of TLR2 and TLR4, TLR-related molecular pathways and their putative role after ischemic stroke are delineated. Furthermore, the relationship between neurosteroids and TLRs as neuroprotective mechanism is highlighted in the context of brain ischemia. © 2018, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: cited By 0
Uncontrolled Keywords: colecalciferol; estradiol; estrogen; neurosteroid; progesterone; toll like receptor; toll like receptor 2; toll like receptor 4; vitamin D; agents interacting with transmitter, hormone or drug receptors; toll like receptor, brain ischemia; dose response; drug megadose; drug potentiation; genetic polymorphism; genetic risk; glia cell; hormone action; human; innate immunity; nerve cell; neuroprotection; nonhuman; protein expression; Review; TLR signaling; traumatic brain injury; brain ischemia; genetics; metabolism; pathophysiology, Brain Ischemia; Humans; Neuroprotection; Neurotransmitter Agents; Polymorphism, Genetic; Toll-Like Receptors
Subjects: Neuroscience
Anatomy Morphology
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine > Basic Sciences > Department of Anatomy
Depositing User: ART . editor
Date Deposited: 20 May 2019 13:59
Last Modified: 20 May 2019 13:59

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