Examining of Thallium in Cigarette Smokers

Ghaderi, A. and NasehGhafoori, P. and Rasouli-Azad, M. and Sehat, M. and Mehrzad, F. and Nekuei, M. and Aaseth, J. and Banafshe, H.R. and Mehrpour, O. (2018) Examining of Thallium in Cigarette Smokers. Biological Trace Element Research, 182 (2). pp. 224-230.

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Abstract

Abstract Smoking is one of the sources of thallium which is considered as a toxic heavy metal. The aim of this study was to determine urinary thallium levels and related variables in smokers, compared to a control group. The study was conducted on 56 participants who had smoked continuously during the year before they were referred to Kashan Smoking Cessation Clinic. Fifty-three nonsmokers who were family members or friends of the smokers were selected as the control group. Urinary thallium was measured in both groups (n = 109) using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean value (with SD) for urinary thallium in the smokers (10.16 ± 1.82 μg/L) was significantly higher than in the control group (2.39 ± 0.63 μg/L). There was a significant relationship between smoking duration and urinary thallium levels (P = 0.003). In a subgroup of smokers who was addicted to opium and opium residues (n = 9), the mean level of thallium (37.5 ± 13.09 μg/L) was significantly higher than in the other smokers (4.93 ± 4.45; P = 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed opioid abuse, insomnia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), together were strong predictors of urinary thallium levels in smokers. There was no significant difference in thallium level in hookah smokers (P = 0.299) or in those with COPD compared to other smokers (P = 0.375). Urinary thallium levels of smokers with clinical signs of depression, sleep disorders, memory loss, and sweating were higher than those of smokers without these signs. Since thallium, as other toxic metals is accumulated in the body, and cigarette smoking also involves carcinogenic exposures and health hazards for passively exposed people, the need for cigarette control policies is emphasized. Keywords: Thallium Smoking Urinary level Poisoning

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: cited By 0
Subjects: Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine > Basic Sciences > Addiction Studies
Depositing User: ART . editor
Date Deposited: 16 Feb 2019 14:57
Last Modified: 16 Feb 2019 14:57
URI: http://eprints.kaums.ac.ir/id/eprint/3411

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