Reduction�oxidation (redox) system in radiation-induced normal tissue injury: molecular mechanisms and implications in radiation therapeutics

Yahyapour, R. and Motevaseli, E. and Rezaeyan, A. and Abdollahi, H. and Farhood, B. and Cheki, M. and Rezapoor, S. and Shabeeb, D. and Musa, A.E. and Najafi, M. and Villa, V. (2018) Reduction�oxidation (redox) system in radiation-induced normal tissue injury: molecular mechanisms and implications in radiation therapeutics. Clinical and Translational Oncology, 20 (8). pp. 975-988.

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Abstract Every year, millions of cancer patients undergo radiation therapy for treating and destroying abnormal cell growths within normal cell environmental conditions. Thus, ionizing radiation can have positive therapeutic effects on cancer cells as well as post-detrimental effects on surrounding normal tissues. Previous studies in the past years have proposed that the reduction and oxidation metabolism in cells changes in response to ionizing radiation and has a key role in radiation toxicity to normal tissue. Free radicals generated from ionizing radiation result in upregulation of cyclooxygenases (COXs), nitric oxide synthase (NOSs), lipoxygenases (LOXs) as well as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase), and their effected changes in mitochondrial functions are markedly noticeable. Each of these enzymes is diversely expressed in multiple cells, tissues and organs in a specific manner. Overproduction of reactive oxygen radicals (ROS), reactive hydroxyl radical (ROH) and reactive nitrogen radicals (RNS) in multiple cellular environments in the affected nucleus, cell membranes, cytosol and mitochondria, and other organelles, can specifically affect the sensitive and modifying enzymes of the redox system and repair proteins that play a pivotal role in both early and late effects of radiation. In recent years, ionizing radiation has been known to affect the redox functions and metabolism of NADPH oxidases (NOXs) as well as having destabilizing and detrimental effects on directly and indirectly affected cells, tissues and organs. More noteworthy, chronic free radical production may continue for years, increasing the risk of carcinogenesis and other oxidative stress-driven degenerative diseases as well as pathologies, in addition to late effect complications of organ fibrosis. Hence, knowledge about the mechanisms of chronic oxidative damage and injury in affected cells, tissues and organs following exposure to ionizing radiation may help in the development of treatment and management strategies of complications associated with radiotherapy (RT) or radiation accident victims. Thus, this medically relevant phenomenon may lead to the discovery of potential antioxidants and inhibitors with promising results in targeting and modulating the ROS/NO-sensitive enzymes in irradiated tissues and organ injury systems. Keywords Radiation Redox Normal tissue injury Inflammation NADPH oxidase

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: cited By 4
Subjects: Medicine
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine > Clinical Sciences > Department of Radiology
Depositing User: ART . editor
Date Deposited: 05 Mar 2019 10:53
Last Modified: 05 Mar 2019 10:53

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